Identifying Rabbit Pain

Betsey was born with splay legs, but she knew she could always use Evie has a body pillow.

The information presented is for educational purposes only and does not substitute veterinarian care. This information should not be used for diagnostic purposes, for treatment of an illness or injury and never should be substituted for veterinarian care by a licensed veterinary practitioner. The Educated Rabbit cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information contained, nor be held responsible for any action, based on information found in The Educated Rabbit.  

Seek advice from your veterinary professional for any rabbit health issues and before administering any drugs!

Signs of a Sick Rabbit

Identifying rabbit pain can be tricky for us humans, especially since rabbits are prey animals and they do not like to advertise when they are not feeling well. After all, there is no reason to let everyone know you are an easy meal. Below are some signs to recognize.

1. Lack of Appetite

Roxanne has always been a big fan of food.

A normal rabbit is always interested in food. Even if they have just finished their bowl of pellets, they won't turn down their favorite veggie or treat. For years, I have watched rabbits stick their noses into the mouths of their bunny friends, just so they can pull out that half-eaten bit of parsley and eat it themselves. To me this indicates that many rabbits love food more than their best friends. If a bunny is suddenly disinterested - or actually turns away - that will alert me immediately to take a second look.

2. Poop

Non-rabbit owners think it's odd that bunny owners are so well versed in the condition of their bunny's poop. That is because the shape, size, color and consistency of rabbit poop can tell you a lot about the health of the rabbit from whence it came. Small or misshapen poops, poops strung together with fur, very soft, smelly poop, diarrhea or the absence of poop altogether will be signs that something is not quite right.

3. Teeth Grinding

Ophelia

Teeth grinding is different than teeth purring. The difference in sound can be hard to explain, but you will definitely know it when you hear it.

Teeth purring happens frequently when a bunny is happy and content. Their teeth click together in a soft chatter when they are passed out in their favorite spot, or if you rub their cheeks, nose or ears just the way they like it.

Teeth grinding happens when rabbits are in a great deal of pain. It can be louder than the normal teeth purr, but the sound will certainly be sharper. I find it sounds more like grinding glass. If you hear teeth grinding, pain medication should be administered right away and you should bring your pet to the vet.

Click below to hear an example of teeth grinding:

4. Behavior

Max

It's so important to know what is normal for your bunny. Potentially abnormal habits, such as being picky, not jumping towards the food or hiding in a box, may be quite normal for your bunny, but may alarm someone else who doesn't know your rabbit at all. If you know what is normal for your rabbit, you can quickly pick up on unusual behavior. Examples would be an outgoing rabbit suddenly hiding; a timid rabbit lunging and trying to bite; an aloof bun letting you pick him up and pet him; a favorite treat left uneaten. These are all signs that shouldn't be ignored.

5. Body Position

Luna in a loaf position. I know she is relaxed, since I came to visit during a quiet time when all the bunnies were taking a nap.

Interpreting body language in rabbits can be challenging, since a relaxed rabbit and a rabbit in pain can have very similar body positions.

On the left, Luna is in a typical 'loaf' position. She is sitting upright with all four feet tucked underneath her. Her ears are somewhat upright and her eyes are open. Rabbits may even nap in this position, however, be aware that they usually sleep with their eyes open no matter what position they happen to be in. You may even catch a napping bunny dream - the mouth will move rapidly, whiskers, feet and/or ears may twitch.

Bunnies will also sit in a loaf position when they are in pain. Is there a difference? Sometimes. Quite often the ears are laid back, the eyes are narrowed (as if squinting) and quite often they are hiding in a box or in a corner. 

Porsche relaxed in a loaf position

Unfortunately, many characteristics of sleeping and sick rabbits are interchangeable. For example, Porsche on the right has her ears flat back (she was not sick at the time of this picture). Even though many sick rabbits flatten their ears, not all do all the time.

So how do you know the difference?

Identifying rabbit pain is not just one thing. It is a combination of all of these signs being discussed. If I see one of my bunnies sitting in the loaf position, I will internally ask myself these questions.

  • Is this in the middle of the afternoon during their usual nap time?

  • Are they in a usual spot in the pen (or exercise area)? If they are in a very unusual spot (for them) such as behind a litter box or squeezed behind a bookshelf or fridge, I would be concerned - especially if they are not curiously checking out a new place, but rather looking for a quiet place to feel awful. 

  • Is there poop in the pen? This will be harder with multiple bunnies, unless the bunny in question has easily identifiable poop (such as shape or coloring).

  • Are they taking treats?


If the answer to all these questions is 'yes,' I'm not concerned. If the answer is 'no,' I might consider taking the temperature of the rabbit in question.

6. Temperature

Soleil and Patrick

Normal body temperature for a rabbit is between 100.5F - 102.5F (38.1C - 39.1C). 

Temperature readings of 102.6F - 103.5F (39.2C - 39.7C) may be elevated due to pain or stress. Rabbits find handling and transporting stressful and that can translate to higher body temperatures. If you see the temperature at 103F or above, wait a few minutes, pet and speak softly to the bunny before trying again. If the reading has not changed, you may be dealing with a fever. At this point, consider consulting with your vet.

Any temperature above 104F (40C) is considered a fever and needs to be addressed immediately. Temperatures lower than 100.5 should also put you on alert and you should seek veterinarian help. A lower temperature indicates a slowing down of the digestive system. If not handled immediately, the temperature continues to drop and the bunny may go into shock.

Identifying Rabbit Pain with Grimace Scales

Grimace Scales have been developed by research facilities working with mice, rats and rabbits to recognize the presence of pain and effectively alleviate it. The scales focus on the shape and position of the eyes, ears, whiskers, nose and cheeks to determine the severity of pain.

Click here to read more about the Rabbit Grimace Scale developed by Dr. Matthew Leach at the Newcastle University.

Coming Soon

It's 8pm on a holiday weekend and your bunny is sick. Do you know what to do?

Unfortunately, most rabbit health issues happen at the most inconvenient times. My Rabbit First Aid Guide will guide you through the most common health issues and provide step-by-step instructions on how best to help your pet. You will learn:

  • What to have in your First Aid kit
  • When to take to the vet
  • How to take your bunny's temperature
  • How to perform a wellness check
  • How to give oral medication and liquid food
  • How to treat minor wounds
  • How to save a choking rabbit
  • How to deal with GI stasis

And much more!

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